Skip Navigation

The Martin Luther King, Jr. Collection on Non-Violence

Written and Compiled by Fredrick A. Burwell (2002)

Compiled in honor of
H. Vail Deale's 1968 gift
of the
Martin Luther King, Jr. Collection on Non-Violence,
and in recognition of his life long commitment
to peace and civil rights.

In 1969, artist O. V. Shaffer'51, designed the distinctive bookplate depicting the peace dove and olive branch, which is placed in each book.

Founding of the King Collection

"If a man hasn't discovered something that he will die for, he isn't fit to live."

--Martin Luther King, Jr.

"International relations for peace and civil rights have always been driving interests," said Vail Deale in the 1988 Beloit Daily News yearbook. As a young man he discovered the works of Henry David Thoreau and later wrote his master's thesis on his journals. Deale was a conscientious objector during World War Two, and served as part-time librarian for a civilian public service camp. In 1991, he wrote, "The things I have been interested in all my life have usually been the 'unpopular' causes which the majority avoid or ignore ... for as long as I can remember, I've been interested in minorities, and especially the condition of Afro-Americans in the United States." He admired such peacemakers as Gandhi, A. J. Muste, and later, Martin Luther King, Jr.

     On April 4, 1968, civil rights leader, Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tenn. Six days later, Vail Deale wrote to Beloit College President, Miller Upton. "Twenty years ago, Mahatma Gandhi was killed by an assassin's bullet. Last week, in the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., the world lost another apostle of non-violence. Numerous memorials, both by individuals and institutions, will be established in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr., and hopefully the philosophy of non-violence will be strengthened by his having lived among us.

     "For several years now I have considered giving my personal library on non-violence and peace to Beloit College in appreciation for all that Beloit means to us. Since a private collection can be more useful in an academic library where future citizens are being educated ... it is my desire to establish 'The Martin Luther King, Jr. Collection on Non-Violence' as a special collection in the College libraries, and to contribute my personal library to this purpose."

     Deale had developed the collection over a period of 40 years. The several hundred volumes dealt with non-violence, conscientious objection, and world peace, and included works by and about Henry David Thoreau, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Jane Addams, and A. J. Muste. A 25-year run of the foremost pacifist journal, Fellowship Magazine, provided an immensely valuable resource for research material on non-violence and the peace movement in the United States. Deale said that he hoped the collection would not remain static and that the College would add "volumes of significance" in the future.

     President Upton wrote back that he was delighted by the gift. "This is a magnificent contribution for you to be making to the College and I hasten to let you know how deeply grateful I am personally as well as President of Beloit College. The addition to the College collection is itself impressive, but I am most please about having it represented in a unified collection form devoted to the subject of non-violent resistance to evil including conscientious objection to war."

     Deale once said that he viewed the collection as "a resource for students who learned about war, battles, and generals but who knew little about nonviolence and the heroes of peace." Students, faculty, and those outside the College, continue to peruse the collection for research and personal interest. Since 1968, the collection has grown by several hundred volumes and includes non-catalogued pamphlets, files, and memorabilia as well. In 1969, artist O. V. Shaffer, class of 1951, designed the distinctive black and white bookplate depicting the peace dove and olive branch, which is placed in each book.


Biography of H. Vail Deale

"If a mean does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away."

--Henry David Thoreau

H. Vail Deale was born on May 14, 1915, in Baltimore, Maryland. He was educated at Dickinson College and DePauw University, where he received his B.A. in 1936. He also received a B.L.S. from the University of Illinois Library School in 1937, and his M.A. in English Literature from Drake University, in 1950. After serving as a librarian at both public and university libraries, Deale came to Beloit College as the director of libraries in 1953. The highlights of Deale's tenure at Beloit are many and varied. It was apparent from the beginning that the Carnegie Library (now the World Affairs Center) was inadequate. After years of careful planning, Deale saw through to completion the building of the Colonel Robert H. Morse Library, which opened in 1962 and was named state "Library of the Year," the first time the award went to a college library. Deale's two Fulbright awards led him to Iran, first in 1965-66, where he assisted in building the first academic library in Iran at Pahlavi University in Shiraz and met the Shah. In 1970-71, he served on the faculty at the University of Tehran. Deale wrote numerous articles for Library Journal, Wisconsin Library Bulletin, College and Research Libraries, and The Journal of Higher Education, among others, and was very active with the Midwest Academic Librarians Conference, served on the council of the American Library Association, and as president of the Wisconsin Library Association. Governor Patrick Lucey, named him to the Wisconsin Council on Library Development in 1973. During his 27 years at Beloit College, approximately 50 students went on to careers in librarianship.

     Although his professional work kept him busy, as well as home life with wife, Jane, and daughter, Sally, Deale was always active and committed to public service in the community. In the 1960s, he worked with the Beloit Community Council on Human Rights, the Beloit Peace Council, and was a member of the Beloit Chapter of the NAACP. He was a charter member of the Leon Peterson Scholarship Committee, was appointed chairman of Brotherhood Week Committee in 1963, and headed the Beloit Citizens Committee for the United Nations in 1964.

     After retiring in 1980, Deale's community activism increased. He was on the board of the Voluntary Action Center, served on several minority scholarship committees, and the Community Resources Commission. He also found time to volunteer as secretary of the Beloit Public Library Foundation. For many years he continued to maintain an office on campus and met with other retired faculty, known as the "Buffaloes."


Personal Statement

My father was a Methodist minister and as a teenager I was active in the youth group of the church. One year we attended a conference at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, where I became involved in the peace movement and its leaders. I read the literature of Mahatma Gandhi, A. J. Muste, Bayard Rustin, and Muriel Lester, to mention a few. Later I became involved with the Quakers during World War II, as a conscientious objector. Over the years, I have accumulated a persona library of literature and its leaders. This became the nucleus of the collection I gave the College library in 1968 at the time of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination. While it is not a large collection, it does contain most of the important items of the peace and civil rights movements. The intent of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Fund, which I set up, is to make possible the purchase of new items for the collection.

--H. Vail Deale 2002

Usage Policy

The Martin Luther King, Jr. Collection on Non-Violence is housed within the Beloit College Archives. The collection is available for research to the College community and the general public, but does not circulate.

The King Collection

The Martin Luther King, Jr. Collection on Non-Violence includes a wide range of books dating from the early 19th century to the present, which offer an extensive survey of the philosophy and history of pacifism, its struggles and triumphs, and the conviction of its practitioners.

     Inventoried below is a sample of many unusual or intriguing books, periodicals, and other materials found in the collection.


Martin Luther King, Jr.

"Man must evolved for all human conflict a method which rejects revenge, aggression and retaliation. The foundation of such a method is love."

--Martin Luther King, Jr.

  1. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1992- ) "The wealth of his writings, both published and unpublished, that constitute his intellectual legacy are now preserved in this authoritative multi-volume edition. Faithfully transcribing the texts of his letters, speechs, sermons, student papers, and articles, this edition has no equal."
  2. Martin Luther King, Jr. 1929-1968 -- An Ebony Picture Biography (1968).
  3. Strength to Love -- Martin Luther King, Jr. (1963).
  4. Stride Toward Freedom -- the Montgomery Story -- Martin Luther King, Jr. (1958)
  5. The Trumpet of Conscience -- Martin Luther King, Jr. (1967).
  6. Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? -- Martin Luther King, Jr. (1967).
  7. Why We Can't Wait -- Martin Luther King, Jr. (1964).
  8. An American Death -- The True Story of the Assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Greatest Manhunt of our Time -- Gerold Frank (1972).
  9. The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr. -- from "Solo" to Memphis -- David J. Garrow (1981).
  10. My Life With Martin Luther King, Jr. -- Coretta Scott King (1969).

Mahatma Gandhi

"Non-violence is the first article of my faith. It is also the last article of my creed."

--Mahatma Gandhi

  1. The collection holds many titles by Gandhi published in India, from the comprehensive (The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi 1884-1897, 2 volumes) to slim volumes (My Non-Violence, To Ashram Sisters, Women and Social Injustice).
  2. The Gandhi Story -- S. D. Sawant and S. D. Badalkar (1966) in comic book format.
  3. Gandhi the Apostle -- Haridas T. Muzumdar (1923).
  4. Lenin and Gandhi -- Rene Fulop-Miller (1927).
  5. Mahatma Gandhi -- the Last Phase -- Pyarelal (1956). The author was Gandhi's long time secretary and editor of the Harijan weeklies, which Gandhi conducted.
  6. Mahatma Gandhi (1954). Published by the government of India. The volume includes over 500 photographs gathered from sources all over the world.
  7. My Childhood with Ghandiji -- Prabhudas Gandhi (1957).
  8. Naked Faquir -- Robert Bernays (1932).
  9. Waiting for the Mahatma -- R. K. Narayan (1955).


"There is no way to peace. Peace is the way."

A. J. Muste

  1. Ambassador of Reconciliation -- A Muriel Lester Reader (1991).
  2. Apostle of Peace -- Essays in Honor of Daniel Berrigan (1996).
  3. Bayard Rustin: Troubles I've Seen -- a Biography -- Jervis Anderson (1997).
  4. Daddy King -- The Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. (1980).
  5. Einstein on Peace -- Otto Nathan and Heinz Norden, editors (1960).
  6. The Journal of Henry David Thoreau (1962 edition).
  7. Lanterns -- a Memoir of Mentors -- Marian Wright Edelman (1999).
  8. Nehru -- the First Sixty Years (1965) Selections from his writings and speeches.
  9. A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil -- Jane Addams (1912).
  10. No Future Without Forgiveness -- Desmond Mpilo Tutu (1999).
  11. Nonviolent Soldier of Islam -- Badshah Khan, a Man to Match His Mountains -- Eknath Easwaran (1999 edition).
  12. Peace Agitator -- the Story of A. J. Muste -- Nat Hentoff (1963).
  13. The Voice of Hope -- Aung San Suu Kyi -- Conversations with Alan Clements (1997).
  14. The World Is My Country -- The Autobiography of Garry Davis (1961).

Civil Rights Movement

"We are on the move now ... No wave of racism can stop us."

--Martin Luther King, Jr.

  1. Series: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement -- David J. Garrow, Editor (1989).
    • Martin Luther King, Jr.: Civil Rights Leader, Theologian, Orator -- David J. Garrow, editor.
    • We Shall Overcome: The Civil Rights Movement in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s -- David J. Garrow, editor.
    • The Walking City: The Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955-1956 -- David J. Garrow, editor.
    • Birmingham, Alabama, 1956-1963: The Black Struggle for Civil Rights -- David J. Garrow, editor.
    • Atlanta, Georgia, 1960-1961: Sit-ins and Student Activism -- David J. Garrow, editor.
    • St. Augustine, Florida, 1963-1964: Mass Protest and Racial Violence -- David J. Garrow, editor.
    • Chicago 1966: Open-Housing Marches, Summit Negotiations and Operation Breadbasket -- David J. Garrow, editor.
    • At the River I Stand: Memphis, the 1968 Strike, and Martin Luther King -- Joan Turner Beifuss.
    • The Highlander Folk School: A History of its Major Programs, 1932-1961 -- Aimee Isgrig Horton.
    • Conscience of a Troubled South: The Southern Conference Educational Fund, 1946-1966 -- Irwin Klibaner.
    • Direct Action and Desegregation, 1960-1962: Toward a Theory of the Rationalization of Protest -- James H. Laue.
    • The Sit-In Movement of 1960 -- Martin Oppenheimer.
    • The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee: The Growth of Radicalism in a Civil Rights Organization -- Emily Stoper.
    • The Social Vision of Martin Luther King, Jr. -- Ira G. Zepp, Jr.
  2. CORE - A Study in the Civil Rights Movement, 1942-1968 -- August Meier and Elliot Rudwick (1973).
  3. An Easy Burden: The Civil Rights Movement and the Transformation of America -- Andrew Young (1996).
  4. For Us, the Living -- Mrs. Medgar Evers, with William Peters (1967).
  5. Free At Last -- A History of the Civil Rights Movement and Those Who Died In the Struggle -- Sara Bullard
  6. Freedom Ride -- James Peck (1962) Personal account of Freedom Rides in 1947 and 1961.
  7. Martin and Malcolm and America -- A Dream or a Nightmare -- James H. Cone (1991).
  8. My Eyes Have Seen -- words and photos by Bob Fitch (1971) Wonderful black and white photographs from 1965-1971. Subjects include Martin Luther King, Jr., Coretta King, David Harris, Cesar Chavez, Pete Seeger, and Dorothy Day.
  9. Walking With the Wind -- A Memoir of the Peace Movement -- John Lewis (1998) Autographed copy.

Conscientious Objection

"The pioneers of a warless world are the youth who refuse military service"

--Albert Einstein

  1. Character "Bad" -- the Story of a Conscientious Objector -- Harold Studley Gray (1934).
  2. The Conscientious Objector in America -- Norman Thomas (1923).
  3. Conscription of Conscience -- The American State and the Conscientious Objector 1940-1947 -- Mulford Q. Sibley and Philip E. Jacob (1952).
  4. The CPS Story: An Illustrated History of Civilian Public Service -- Albert N. Keim (1990).
  5. Directory of Civilian Public Service -- May, 1941, to March, 1947 -- Published by the National Service Board for Religious Objectors.
  6. A Few Small Candles: War Resisters of World War II Tell Their Stories -- Larry Gara and Lenna Mae Gara, editors (1999).
  7. Handbook for Conscientious Objectors -- Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors (11th edition 1971 and 13th edition 1982).
  8. The New Exiles -- American War Resisters In Canada -- Roger Neville Williams (1971).
  9. Peace Was in Their Hearts -- Conscientious Objectors in World War Two -- Richard C. Anderson (1994).
  10. They Love It But Leave It -- American Deserters -- Devi Prasad (1971).

Nuclear War

"We cannot be satisfied with a situation in which the world is capable of extinction in a moment of error, or madness, or anger."

--John F. Kennedy

  1. Alternatives to the H-Bomb -- (1955) A compilation of pieces by prominent authors such as Lewis Mumford, Reinhold Niebuhr, and Chester Bowles.
  2. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes -- The Official Report on the Development of the Atomic Bomb Under the Auspices of the United States Government, 1940-1945 -- Henry DeWolf Smyth (1945).
  3. Missile Envy -- The Arms Race and Nuclear War -- Dr. Helen Caldicott (Revised Edition, 1986).
  4. Peace or Atomic War? -- Albert Schweitzer (1958).
  5. We of Nagasaki -- Eight Survivors in an Atomic Wasteland -- Takashi Nagai (1951).


"We plant seeds that will flower as results in our lives, so best to remove the weeds of anger, avarice, envy and doubt, that peace and abundance may manifest for all."

--Dorothy Day

  1. Anthology of Pacifism -- a collection of pamphlets including Prison and Court Manual for Conscientious Objectors Facing Prosecution and Imprisonment (1940s).
  2. Between War and Peace -- a Handbook of Essays for Peace Workers -- Florence Brewer Boeckel (1928).
  3. The Book of Peace -- A Collection of Essays on War and Peace (1845).
  4. Essays on Peace and War -- Philanthropos (1827).
  5. For Peace and Justice -- Pacifism in America 1914-1941 -- Charles Chatfield (1971).
  6. Newer Ideals of Peace -- Jane Addams (1907).
  7. Non-violence in an Aggressive World -- A. J. Muste (1940).
  8. Not By Night -- A. J. Muste (1947).
  9. The Nonviolent Alternative -- Thomas Merton (Revised Edition, 1980).
  10. Pacifism in the United States -- From the Colonial Era to the First World War -- Peter Brock (1968).
  11. The Peace Manual or War and Its Remedies -- Geo. C. Beckwith, American Peace Society (1847).
  12. Peace and Bread in Time of War -- Jane Addams (1922).
  13. Peace With Honor -- A. A. Milne (1934).
  14. The Power of the People -- Active Nonviolence in the United States -- Robert Cooney and Helen Michalowski, editors (1977).
  15. Protest, Power, and Change -- an Encyclopedia of Nonviolent Action from ACT-UP to Women's Suffrage -- Roger S. Powers, William B. Vogele, editors (1997).
  16. Toward World Peace -- Speeches and Public Statements 1957-1963 -- U. Thant (Secretary General of the United Nations) (1964).
  17. Towards an Enduring Peace -- A Symposium of Peace Proposals and Programs 1914-1916 -- compiled by Randolph S. Bourne (undated).
  18. Training for Nonviolent Action for High School Students - a Handbook -- Bidge McKay (1971).
  19. Have Been Invaded by the 21st Century -- David McReynolds (1970).
  20. Why Men Fight -- Bertrand Russell (1917).

General History

  1. The Case for Penal Abolition -- W. Gordon West and Ruth Morris, editors (2000).
  2. Chance and Circumstance -- The Draft, the War, and the Vietnam Generation -- Lawrence M. Baskir and William A. Strauss (1978).
  3. Direct and Indirect Costs of the Great World War -- Ernest L. Bogart (1920). Produced by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  4. Hell Healing and Resistance -- Veterans Speak -- (1998).
  5. A Thousand Days -- John F. Kennedy in the White House -- Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965) Autographed copy.
  6. A Vietnam Primer -- published by the editors of Ramparts Magazine (1966).
  7. The War in Vietnam -- the Text of the Controversial Republican White Paper -- prepared by the Staff of the Senate Republican Policy Committee (1967).


  1. Another Mother for Peace: 1968-1979.
  2. CCCO Draft Counselor's Newsletter (Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors): 1968-1979.
  3. Center Peace -- The Newsletter of the Center on Law and Pacifism: 1979-1982.
  4. FCNL Washington Newsletter (Friends Committee on National Legislation): 1964-1982.
  5. Fellowship -- The Journal of the Fellowship of Reconciliation: v.3 #1 (1937) - present.
  6. Michigan FOR News: 1949-1966.
  7. News Notes of the Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors: v.1 #3-v.1 #7 (1949), incomplete but substantial run from 1961-1980s.
  8. Pacifica Views: v.1 #8-v.1 #36 (1943-1944) and v.3 #1-v.3 #22 (1945).
  9. The Reporter (National Service Board for Religious Objectors): Incomplete run from v.14-v.28 (1957-1971) and v.29-v.39 (1972-1982).
  10. SANE WORLD -- A Newsletter of Action on Disarmament and the Peace Race: 1965-1982.
  11. WIN (Workshop In Nonviolence): v.9-v.12 (1973-1976) and v.18-v.19 (1982-1983).


This section of the King Collection is housed in acid-free boxes, organized by subject. The materials include a rich array of pamphlets, brochures, bibliographies, and special issues of magazines. There are also a variety of articles, obituaries and memorials concerning Martin Luther King, Jr.

Here is a sample of some of the most intriguing items:

  1. Vail Deale's personal scrapbook on conscientious objection/pacifism (1941-1945). The scrapbook contains a plethora of articles, clippings and memorabilia, dealing with conscientious objectors and the Civilian Public Service program, including the special camps set up during World War II.
  2. The Movement: Documentary of a Struggle for Equality -- Lorraine Hansberry (1964). Produced by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
  3. Full text of Civil Rights Bill H.R. 7152, "The Civil Rights Act of 1963".
  4. A fascinating folder of "hate mail" sent to the Fellowship of Reconciliation in response to a 1968 newspaper advertisement entitled: "It's time to stop killing fathers and sons ... time to disarm America!"
  5. Pacifist Handbook -- Fellowship of Reconciliation (1939).
  6. "We Walked to Moscow" -- About 1960-61 peace walk from San Francisco to Moscow
  7. "A Plea for Immediate Peace By Negotiation" - George W. Hartman (1942). Published by War Resister's League.
  8. A 78 RPM record, "Mahatma Gandhi: His Spiritual Message."
  9. A Uruguayan comic book, Martin Luther King Y La Historia De Montgomery.
  10. "A Study Kit for Nonviolent Revolution" (mid 1970s). Produced by War Resister's League/West.
  11. Life Magazine -- 4/19/68. The issue focuses on King's assassination and funeral.
  12. "House Un-American Activities Committee: Bulwark of Segregation" -- Anne Braden (1964).

"I still believe that one day mankind will bow before the altars of God and be crowned triumphant over war and bloodshed, and nonviolent redemptive goodwill will proclaim the rule of the land."

--Martin Luther King, Jr.