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Notes Diary of Thomas McClelland


1. The Court of Death-- Painted in 1820 by Rembrandt Peale.(1778-1860)

2. Professor James Davie Butler- Butler graduated from Middlebury College in Vermont in 1836 and then from Andover Theological Seminary in 1840. In 1858, Butler began his work at UW-Madison as professor of Greek and the humanities, until 1867 when the university was reorganized. Butler wrote many articles, even contributing to the Nation and other magazines.
Dictionary of Wisconsin Biography. The State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Madison: 1960.

3. George Richards Hayden- Hayden was from Milwaukee and was scheduled to graduate in 1864, but did not. Hayden passed away in 1923.
Beloit College Archives

4. Benjamin Copp- Copp was from Prescott and was also in Thomas's class, scheduled to graduate in 1864, but he did not graduate either.
Beloit College Archives

5. George W. Tallmon- Tallmon was from Hannibal, Missouri and was scheduled to graduate in 1864, but did not.
Beloit College Archives

6. Nelson L. Rood- Rood was from Osage, Iowa and was also scheduled to graduate in 1864, but did not. Rood passed away in 1913.
Beloit College Archives

7. S.A. Douglas-- Refers to Stephen A. Douglas leader of the Northern Democrats. Douglas was from Illinois.

8. Seward-- Refers to William H. Seward, who was anticipated to be the Republican candidate for the election of 1860, but Abraham Lincoln would edge him in the race.

9. Egbert B. Mack- Mack attended the academy in 1860.
Beloit College Archives

10. Principal John P. Fisk- Fisk was the principal of the preparatory department at Beloit. Fisk is remembered for his good discipline, high moral tone and thorough teaching, especially in Latin. (Brown, Wm. F., Beloit College Archives) "His massive frame, his rugged personality and his abrupt manner were sometimes fearsome to timid youths, but were a salutary warning to the wayward and were a tonic for all."
Eaton, Edward D. Historical Sketches of Beloit College New York: A.S. Barnes and Company, 1928.

11. Charles P. Bascom- Bascom was from Dover, Illinois and went on to graduate in 1864. Bascom went on to become a merchant, and passed away in 1896.
Beloit College Archives

12. Oliver Cromwell- Oliver Cromwell lived from 1599-1658, and was "a key figure in one of the most troubled periods of British history." Cromwell was the Lord Protector of the people of Europe, and his life, ambitions, motives, and actions are up for scholarly debate. This would make him a good subject for debate in one of Thomas's classes.

13. Alexander F. Kopplin- Kopplin was scheduled to graduate in 1863, but did not.
Beloit College Archives

14. Dock- It is believed that "Dock" refers to Thomas's brother Milo McClelland who spent two years at the Preparatory School. Milo also spent one year serving in the army.

15. Professor Rev. James J Blaisdell- Professor Blaisdell taught rhetoric and English literature, and was born February 8, 1827. Blaisdell was known for his devotion to the environment, in a time when this was not thought of as much as it is know. Blaisdell was one of the five "Old Guard" of early Beloit: Chapin, Emerson, Bushnell, Porter and Blaisdell. Four of these men Thomas McClelland studied under. "To meet Professor Blaisdell was to feel oneself in the presence of greatness."
Eaton, Edward D. Historical Sketches of Beloit College New York: A.S. Barnesand Company, 1928.

16. Doctor Jewett-- Refers to Charles Jewett, M.D. of Boston. A well-known temperance speaker of the time.

17. John Brown- John Brown is best remembered for his raid on Harper's Ferry in Virginia. Brown planned to capture the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry and then use the weapons to arm thousands of slaves he expected to join him. Brown would be sentenced to death for his anti-slavery tactics, but would long be remembered for his commitment to anti-slavery. Ralph Waldo Emerson even said that Brown would "make the gallows as glorious as the cross," and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow said the day of execution was "the date of a new Revolution,--quite as much needed as the old one."
McPherson, James L. Ordeal By Fire. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. New York: 1982.

18. H. Ford Douglass- an abolitionist leader from Chicago. He was involved politically in the fight to improve the lives of all black citizens. Douglass was one of the first African American men in uniform for Illinois in the Civil War, joining the 95th Illinois Infantry. There is no relation to Frederick Douglass.

19. Hanchett's Hall- Hanchett's Hall is a historic hall located in downtown Beloit where speakers including Abraham Lincoln and other political figures spoke. The hall overlooks State Street and is recognizable by its extra-tall third floor windows. The building is also characterized by a "strikingly heavy and ornate roof cornice." The building that housed Hanchett's Hall also overlooked Broad Street, where the single door entranceway to the hall was located. There was also a second floor observation window that projected over the sidewalk located on Broad Street.
Luebke, Arthur. Lincoln in Beloit. The Beloit Historical Society: 1982. pages 32-33.

20. chirography- handwriting, autograph.
Oxford Universal Dictionary

21. Anabasis of Alexander- refers to one of two books on Alexander the Great written in second-hand accounts. No first-hand accounts are available. The Anabasis of Alexander was written in Greek in the second century CE by Arrian.

22. Dr. Holland- refers to Dr. Josiah Gilbert Holland. Holland was a writer born in Massachusettes, and lived from 1819-1881. He was co-founder and co-editor of Scribner's Monthly. In the diary, McClelland is referring to Holland's pseudonym, Timothy Titcomb.
Kwitz and Haycraft. American Authors 1600-1900. H.W. Wilson Company: New York. 1938.

23. Landvuieglee- The actual spelling is "Landvoieglee," although Thomas mispelled the title. Landvoieglee translates to "views across the sea," and was written by William Furniss in 1850. The book is 290 pages long, describing travels across Europe, complete with illustrations and a map.
     This info was found by using World Cat, to locate the book. Allibones Dictionary of Authors was also used to determine which Mr. Furniss McClelland was referring to.

24. lickspittle- an abject parasite; a toady.
Oxford Universal Dictionary

25. Rev. Joseph Emerson- Joseph Emerson was born May 28, 1821 in Norfolk, Connecticut. Emerson would study at Yale, and was one of the original professors at Beloit College. Emerson was the Williams Professor of the Greek anguage and Literature. "Emerson was of commanding presence, tall, with dark, often flashing eyes; of fine classical culture, a born teacher, expecting and exacting thorough work and discomfiting the careless student with courteous severity." Emerson was a professor at Beloit from 1848-1900.
Eaton, Edward D. Historical Sketches of Beloit College New York: A.S. Barnesand Company, 1928.

26. Dr. Rev. Aaron Lucius Chapin- Dr. Chapin was born in Hartford, CT on February 6, 1817, and was the first president of Beloit College. Chapin graduated from Yale with honor in 1837. Chapin came to Beloit in 1849, and served as president for thirty-six years. "But his great life-work, that for which he will be especially remembered and honored, was his leadership in laying deep and broad the foundations of this beloved college, which, we believe, is for generations to pour out its rich blessings upon the world..."
Beloit College Archives. Aaron Lucius Chapin Memorial

27. Alexander Williams Randall- Randall was a lawyer, politician, governor, and U.S. postmaster general and lived from Oct. 31, 1819-July 26, 1872. Randall moved to Wisconsin in 1840, after studying at Cherry Valley Academy in New York. Randall settled in Prairieville, which is now Waukesha. Randall supported the Free Soil Party, and was elected governor in 1857, and then again in 1859. Randall's first term was known for his initiation of a legislative investigation of frauds in the distributing of land grants in Wisconsin. His second term would be remembered for his organizing of the state to participate in the Civil War. In 1866, President Andrew Johnson asked Randall to become the postmaster general, and retired when Johnson left office.
Dictionary of Wisconsin Biography. The State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Madison: 1960.

28. Owen Lovejoy- This refers to Owen Lovejoy of Princeton, Bureau County, Illinois. Lovejoy was a member of the Illinois state house of representatives in 1854, and the U.S. Representative from Illinois from 1857-64. Lovejoy lived from 1811-1864. This is the same Lovejoy that McClelland refers to on April 13, 1860.
The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians

29. infandous- unspeakable, not to be spoken of, nefarious.
Oxford Universal Dictionary

30. Joshua R. Giddings- Joshua Reed Giddings(1795-1864) was an American abolitionist with a militant style. He represented the Western Reserve in Congress from 1838 until 1859. Giddings became a Free-Soiler in 1848 and a Republican in 1855.

31. Henry Robert Addison- It is assumed that McClelland is talking about Henry Robert Addison here. Addison was a dramatist and a "man of letters." Born to Irish parents, Addison wrote for the Dublin University Magazine.,HR/life.htm

32. dupe- One who allows himself to be deluded; a victim of deception.
Oxford Universal Dictionary

33. Henry Barnard- Barnard graduated from Yale in 1830, and admitted to the bar in 1835. Barnard came to Madison in 1859 to take the position of chancellor at the University of Wisconsin. Barnard recommended that Madison high school serve as a preparatory school for the University, and tried to organize a normal department separate from the university. Barnard became the first U.S. Commissioner of Education.
Dictionary of Wisconsin Biography. The State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Madison: 1960.

34. felon-- a small boil or inflammation; a sore
Oxford Universal Dictionary>/p>

35. Philo Foster Pettibone- Pettibone was two years ahead of Thomas in school, and grew up in New York. Pettibone was an active anti-slavery voice at the Andover Theological Seminary and organized abolition societies around Boston. Pettibone's father became the pastor of the church in Burlington, WI so the family came to Wisconsin. Pettibone worked as a stationer after college and even went on to organize a firm with two other partners. Pettibone died in 1919.
Beloit College Archives Microfiche

36. Life and Religion of Mohammed>- As contained in the Sheeah traditions of the Hyat-ul-Kuloob. This book was written in 1850, and is about Muhammed the Prophet. The book was written in Persian, and then translated by James L. Merrick.
The information for this footnote was obtained by using First Search on World Cat.

37. Dr. Henry B. Nason- Henry B. Nason came to Beloit College in 1858 to be the Professor of Chemistry and Natural Sciences, and stayed here for eight years. Nason studied at the University of Goettingen in Germany, and split his time at Beloit with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, where he would take on a permanent role after leaving Beloit. Nason's primary interests academically lay in the area of volcanic phenomena. "He was unusually well equipped for science work, was a fine organizer and enthusiastic student."
Eaton, Edward D. Historical Sketches of Beloit College New York: A.S. Barnes and Company, 1928.

38. Deacon Gregory- Leander D. Gregory was born in Connecticut in 1808, and served as Treasurer of Beloit College from 1856-1869. Coming from a farming background in New England, Gregory was one of the first to introduce into New England the raising of Merino sheep. After heading west, "he was a pioneer in giving attention to the breeding of stock." "With marked peculiarities which precluded him from the most open and easy fellowship with men, in integrity and that insight into what is enduring and genuine, there has been no superior man in the goodly roll of the citizens of Rock County."
Portrait and Biographical Album of Rock County, Wisconsin. Chicago: Acme Publishing Co., 1889. page 872.

39. Carl Schurz- Carl Shurz was born in Liblar, Germany in 1829 and lived an eventful life. In 1855, Shurz moved to Watertown, Wisconsin. Shurz began studying law and passed his bar test, then setting up a law practice in Milwaukee. Shurz was in favor of anti-slavery and supported Abraham Lincoln. Shurz went throughout the Midwest in 1860 on a speaking tour. When war started, Shurz asked Lincoln to grant him a position in the Union army. In 1862, Shurz was commissioned brigadier general of volunteers, and joined Fremont's division in Virginia. Shurz would later become Senator of Missouri in 1869, and Secretary of the Interior in the cabinet of President Rutherford B. Hayes from 1877-1881. Shurz's last mark of fame was serving as editor of the New York Evening Post from 1881-1884. For further reading see A Beloit Episode in the Life of Carl Shurz, by Robert K. Richardson in the Beloit College Archives.
Dictionary of Wisconsin Biography. The State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Madison: 1960.

40. Professor Rev. William Porter- Professor Porter was born in Lee, Massachusetts on January 10, 1820, and died on October 28, 1917. Porter graduated from Williams College in 1839, and was one of Thomas's favorite professors. Porter was well-known among the students at Beloit. Porter married President Chapin's sister, Ellen G. Chapin, in 1854. Porter taught at Beloit even into his nineties. Porter taught Latin and Literature. "Professor Porter's serene spirit, sound judgment and accurate knowledge made him an invaluable counselor."
Eaton, Edward D. Historical Sketches of Beloit College New York: A.S. Barnes and Company, 1928.

41. Alonzo P. May- May was from Dartford, and went on to graduate in 1864. After graduating, May went on to become a clergyman, and passed away in 1925. May served 4 months in the army during the war.
Beloit College Archives

42. Daniel Webster- (1782-1852) Daniel Webster was a lawyer, and a well-spoken orator of his time. Webster was an advocate of American Nationalism, and would become part of the Whig party in 1833. Webster would go on to become Secretary of State in 1841 under William Henry Harrison. Webster would again serve as Secretary of State in 1850 under Millard Fillmore.

43. wight- a human being

44. Wide Awakes- "The Wide Awakes were a radical wing of the Republican Party with a very strong anti-slavery platform. They were active early supporters of Abraham Lincoln and famous for organizing impressive night parades, carrying lanterns, and wearing distinctive clothing."

45. Murray's Hall- Also referred to as Union Hall, "Murray's Hall" was built by Mr. Edward Murray in 1855. The hall stood on the of corner Race and State streets, and measured 44x60 feet. The hall was destroyed by fire in 1871.
The History of Rock County, Wisconsin. Western Historical Company: Chicago. 1879.

46. Harlow South Orton- Harlow Orton was born on November 23, 1817 and passed away on July 4, 1895. Orton worked as a lawyer, politician, and also a judge. Educated at Hamilton Academy and Madison University (currently Colgate University), Orton was admitted to the bar in 1838. Orton was living in La Porte, Indiana at the time and would move to Milwaukee ten years later. Orton was dean of the University of Wisconsin law school from 1869-1874, and even mayor of Madison from 1877-1878. In 1878 when the Wisconsin Supreme Court expanded its numbers, Orton was granted one of the new judgeships. He served here from April 1878 until his death, and even became chief justice in 1894.
Dictionary of Wisconsin Biography. The State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Madison: 1860.

47. Horace R. Hobart- Hobart was a graduate of Beloit College in 1860 and was from Beloit. McClelland was in the normal school at this time in Beloit. Hobart served in the First Wisconsin Cavalry following graduation. After the war, Hobart began working for the Chicago Evening Post as the city editor. Hobart is most remembered for being one of the founders and the editor of Railway Age. Hobart died in 1928, at the age of 89.
Beloit College Archive Microfiche

48. Dexter D. Hill- D.D. Hill was born in Mass. and was younger than Thomas. Hill was a part of the class of 1866 after he left school for a time to volunteer in the Wisconsin regiment during the Civil War. Hill would go on to the Chicago Theological Seminary and became a Reverend. Hill started and built up the Congregational church of Pasadena, and would stay the pastor there for thirty-six years. Hill died at his home in Los Angeles in 1923.
Beloit College Archive Microfiche

49. Matt Hale Carpenter- Carpenter was a Wisconsin senator who lived in Milwaukee during the time that McClelland was writing his diary. Carpenter began his political career as a Democrat and supported Stephen A. Douglas in the election of 1860. As the Civil War drew nearer, Carpenter became a "war Democrat" and soon joined the ranks of the Republican party. Carpenter then went on to be a radical supporter of Grant while in the Senate. Carpenter also gave the dedicatory speech for Memorial Hall on July 14, 1869. Memorial Hall is located on the Beloit College campus, and houses the Logan Museum of Anthropology. It was built to honor those from Beloit and Beloit College who died in the Civil War.
Dictionary of Wisconsin Biography. The State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Madison: 1860.

50. muss- a disturbance, (row 1848).
Oxford Universal Dictionary

51. Professor Henry S. Kelsey- Professor Kelsey was the Hale Professor of mathematics and natural philosophy. Kelsey came to Beloit College after studying at Amherst. Kelsey took the place of well-known Professor Bushnell. Kelsey taught at Beloit from 1860-1863.
Beloit College Archives

52. Justin M. Brainard- Justin was two years ahead of Thomas in school. Brainard was from Blairesville, Pennsylvania, and went on to become a paper dealer after he was out of school. He was also a teacher for 3 years after graduation. Brainard died in 1912.
Beloit College Archives Microfiche

53. Chaucer- Geoffrey Chaucer was a well-known English author who lived from around 1342 to 1400. Chaucer's most famous writing is The Canterbury Tales.
The New Encyclopaedia Brittanica, Volume 3. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Chicago: 1995.

54. Harper + Brothers- Harper + Brothers printing and publishing is ne of the oldest publishing companies in the United States. John and James Harper established J&J Harper in 1817. In 1833, the name was changed to Harper & Brothers after Joseph and Fletcher had joined the company. Joseph joined in 1823, and Fletcher in 1825. Harper's New Monthly Magazine was the company's first periodical published in 1850, and was later followed by Harper's Weekly in 1857, and Harper's Bazaar in 1867. The business left the Harper family in 1900.
Britannica Concise on-line encyclopedia

55. Lady Elgin- The Lady Elgin has been described as the "Titanic" of the Great Lakes. The Lady Elgin was a passenger vessel that crashed off of the coast of Winnika, IL on September 8, 1860. Over 300 people were lost when the Lady Elgin caught fire and sank. The boat was struck by a 129 foot, 266 ton schooner, the Augusta at about 2:30 AM. The Lady Elgin still ranks as the second worst loss of life on the Great Lakes. It had been the worst loss of life until 1915, when a steamer rolled over while still docked in Chicago.

56. squib- to use smart or sarcastic language.
Oxford Univeral Dictionary

57. The Courtship of Miles Standish- "The Courtship of Miles Standish" is a narrative poem written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. The fictional poem written in 1858 is about the courtship of Miles Standish and Priscilla Mullins. The setting of the poem is Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1621.

58. Lord Renfrew- This refers to the eventual king of Great Britain and Ireland. Lord Renfrew was born in 1841, and was Prince of Wales until 1901 when he became king, and known as Edward VII. "In 1859 he traveled in Italy and Spain, and in 1860 paid a visit as Lord Renfrew to the United States and Canada."

59. Goodrich's British Eloquence- British Eloquence was written by Chauncey A. Goodrich in 1852, a professor at Yale College. The book is full of the best speeches from the most prominent orators of Great Britain. The book includes sketches of their lives, an estimate "of their genius, and notes critical and explanatory."
The North American Review. Vol. 76, Issue 158. Cedar Falls, Iowa: 1853.

60. Louis Powell Harvey- Harvey was born in East Haddam, Connecticut and lived from 1820-1862. In 1841, Harvey moved to Southport, Wisconsin and started an academy. Harvey was also active in Whig politics. Harvey was a delegate to the constitutional convention in 1847-1848, helpedstart the Republican party in Ripon, WI and served as state senator from 1854-1857. Harvey was Wisconsin's secretary of state from 1860-1862, and became governor in January 1862. Harvey was very interested in how the Wisconsin soldiers were fairing and planned an expedition to visit, but along the way was accidentally drowned in the Tennessee River.
Dictionary of Wisconsin Biography. The State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Madison: 1960.

62. extempore- at the moment, without preparation; off-hand.
Oxford Universal Dictionary

63. Groggery- A "grog" was a drink made from spirits and water, and a groggery was the place to drink it.
Oxford Universal Dictionary

64. Miss Dewey- Anah T. Dewey was matron of the club in the College from 1858 until 1882. The "college club" was found in the basement of North College, "which furnished table board at from one dollar and a half to two dollars a week." Miss. Dewey directed and shared in the cooking, "whose devotion to student welfare and whose high-souled Christian enthusiasm have been gratefully remembered by many."
Eaton, Edward D. Historical Sketches of Beloit College New York: A.S. Barnes and Company, 1928.

65. Rockford Female Seminary- "The Rockford College Charter was signed on February 25, 1847, in Springfield, IL. It stated that an institution to be located in the town of Rockford would be erected with accomodations sufficiently extensive to afford instruction in the liberal arts and sciences adapted to the highest order of Female education."
Beloit College Archives

66. Bushnell House- The Bushnell House was a hotel that was connected to the Goodwin Opera House. The hotel housed Beloit's only two banks at the time: Hyde & Brittan, and Beloit National. "The social life of Beloit centered at the hotel and opera house. Abraham Lincoln was a guest at the hotel on October 1, 1859, and spoke from the second floor balcony.
Beloit Daily News. Friday October 25, 1968.

67. Spark- to engage in courtship; to play the suitor. (1808)
Oxford Universal Dictionary

68. imbecile- weak, feeble; especially of the body.
Oxford Universal Dictionary

69. Lyman W. Winslow- Lyman Winslow was from Beloit, and graduated from the college in 1863. He went on to become a Clergyman, and passed away in 1917.
Beloit College Archives

70. General David Emanuel Twiggs- Twiggs is an interesting person in history, and known for serving in both the U.S. Army and the Confederate forces in 1861. Twiggs was despised by many for surrendering all of the men and equipment in Texas to the State of Texas at the beginning of the Civil War. Twiggs was dismissed from the U.S. Army for this move, and was then later appointed Major General in the Confederate Provisional Army.

71. Major Robert Anderson- Anderson was the Union general in charge at Fort Sumter. Anderson held off initial attacks by South Carolina, and preserved the site. The Northern newspapers put it like this "We are ruined if Anderson is recalled or if Sumter is given up. ...There will be hardly a man found who will not on this question be ready to attack the South."
McPherson, James L. Ordeal By Fire. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. New York: 1982.

72. Judd- This refers to Normal Buel Judd who lived from 1815 until 1878. In 1836, Judd was admitted to the bar and began practicing law in Chicago. He was a state senator from 1844-1860, and chairman of the Illinois delgation in the Chicago convention that nominated Abraham Lincoln for the presidency. Judd was also elected to the Congress from 1867-1871.

73. Samuel Erskine- Samuel Erskine was a year ahead of Thomas in school and was from Mineral Point, Wisconsin, but was born near Ireland. Erskine would go on to become prosecuting attorney of the court of criminal correction in Chicago. Erskine was also a proud Democrat, and worked to help the party. Erskine died in 1883 near the age of 42.
Beloit College Archive Microfiche

74. Fort Pitkins- This footnote refers to an event, as told by James M. McPherson, in Ordeal by Fire.
     "On March 12, Lincoln had ordered that Fort Pickens in Florida be reinforced. This was more feasible than reinforcement of Sumter, for Pickens was outside the harbor entrance and thus less vulnerable than Sumter, which was ringed by scores of Confederate cannon. It was also less provocative, for Pickens was not the powerful symbol to both sides that Sumter had become. But weeks passed and Lincoln received no word whether his order to reinforce Pickens had been carried out. On April 6, he finally learned that it had not. The naval commander there had cited the previous agreement not to reinforce so long as the Confederates refrained from attacking the fort and had refused to recognize new orders unless issued directly by his superiors in the Navy Dept. Such orders were sent April 6; Pickens was reinforced and held by the Union throughout the Civil War."
McPherson, James L. Ordeal By Fire. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. New York: 1982.

75. "In 1861, about 44 percent of the banks in Wisconsin closed, 81 percent of the banks in Illinois closed, and noteholders suffered substantial losses. The historical record suggests a possible explanation: an effective suspension of payments in Wisconsin but not in Illinois. Historical and statistical evidence indicates that the suspension of payments decreased the number of banks that closed and noteholders' losses."

76. It is believed from the Beloit College Archives that Solomon Moon never served in the war.

77. R.L. Adams did serve as a soldier from 1862-1864.

78. D.D. Hill did get drafted and served 20 months in the army.

79. This is either Newton S. Johnson or Ole C. Johnson, both were in the Prep class in 1861; Newton was a soldier from Sept. 1861-Oct. 1862. There is no record of service for Ole.

80. William J. Evans did end up serving for 1 year and 11 months.

81. Nelson Rood never served, and ended up leaving Beloit and attending Williams College because the war had broken up his class.

82. Charles P. Bascom served "irregular service" for 20 months in the Kansas Home Guards.

83. It is believed George P. Davis never served.

84. It is believed Southworth never served in the army.
Beloit College Archives.

85. Albert O. Wright- Wright graduated from Beloit in 1864, and was a Clergyman. He was active in the war spending 18 days as a private in Slaymaker's Co. 2nd Wisconsin Infantry. He was also Corporal Co. B, 40th Wisconsin Infantry for 4½ months. Wright died in 1905.
Beloit College Archives

86. "stump tail" currency- This was a term applied to all notes of a shady or doubtful character, during the 1800's when many banks were failing, and there was no regulation of currency. "...term came in vogue in 1858, at the time Frank Leslie's newspaper was exposing the swill milk frauds in New York, the milk being the product of stumptail cows."

87. July 3, 1861- Nasa's website does have a record of the comet that Thomas is referring to. The comet was visible on July 3, and the website describes it as "Comet of 1861, bright in the night sky, frightened people."

88. J.H. Dixon- Julian H. Dixon graduated in 1867, and went on to become a Clergyman. He was from Tafton, Wisconsin. He passed away in 1898.
Beloit College Archives

89. Mary Queen of Scots- This refers to Mary Stuart who was born at Linlithgow Palace on December 7, 1542. Mary was the daughter of James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise. Only six days after Mary was born, her father passed away, and Mary became the Queen of Scotland.

90. Jacob Abbott- Jacob Abbott lived from 1803 until 1879. Scott is known as "the man responsible for writing the first fictional series for children, for introducing many of the key types and techniques of series books, for popularizing the genre virtually single-handedly, and for writing some of the earliest American juveniles deserving the term 'children's literature'."

91. Peter Hendrickson- Hendrickson came to Beloit from Norway, and entered the preparatory class in 1859. He continued his studies and graduated in 1867. Hendrickson came back to Beloit after graduation and became the first graduate to return to the alma mater as a professor, the first professor of modern languages. He was also the first professor to study abroad before coming to Beloit College. Hendrickson taught from 1871-1885.
Siegel, Kari. "No Longer the College on the Hill: Beloit's International Outlook from 1847-1924." Beloit College Archives.

92. Leesburg- The battle of Leesburg, also known as Ball's Bluff, was fought on October 21, 1861. The battle was fough in Virginia on the Potomac River, around thirty-five miles upriver from Washington. The Union had 1,720, and only 49 were killed, while the Confederates had 1,709 men and 36 were killed. Under commander, Col. "Shank" Evans, the Confederates were victorious. The Union general, Charles Stone, was accused of treason without a writ of habeas corpus, and "thrown in dungeons in forts in New York City for 189 days."

93. Colonel Baker- Col. Edward D. Baker was the commander of the 71st Pennsylvania Infantry. Baker was the highest-ranking officer killed at the Battler of Leesburg. Baker was a Senator from Oregon and close friend and political ally of Lincoln.

94. Trent Affair- The British "mail packet" Trent, was halted in the Bahama Channel by Captain Wilkes of the U.S. warship San Jacinto on November 8, 1861. The Trent carried James Mason and John Slidell. Both men were forcibly removed and taken to Boston. This was opposed to the laws of the sea as had been earlier upheld in the United States, since Captain Wilkes had not brought the vessel in for admiralty adjudication, but merely exercised search and seizure of the men. Wilkes was thanked by the House of Representatives, but the action was not like in England. The British government demanded release of the men, and a seven day limit was set until Great Britain would not only recognize the Confederacy but declare war against the Union. The whole situation was delayed, giving things time to settle down. On December 26 the Cabinet met and it was decided to disavow Wilkes actions and release the prisoners.

95. Mason- James Murray Mason was a U.S. Senator and Confederate diplomat, and grandson of George Mason. Jefferson Davis made Mason Confederate commisioner to England in August 1861. Mason, along with John Slidell, were seized aboard the British ship Trent by Captain Charles Wilkes, commanding the U.S. warship San Jacinto, and was a prisoner at Fort Warren in Boston until 1862. After being released, Mason went to England, but was never recognized by the English government.

96. Slidell- John Slidell was an American political leader and diplomat. Slidell was a Senator from Louisiana from 1853-1861, and played a part in securing the presidency for James Buchanan. In 1861, Slidell was appointed Confederate commissioner to France. Slidell was captured aboard the Trent (previous footnote) along with James Mason. Slidell was accepted in Paris, but was not able to get any official recognition or any material aid for the Confederacy from Napoleon. Slidell moved to France after the Civil War.

97. ...Fremont affair in Missouri- This refers to a proclamation that John C. Fremont and Sterling Price made in Missouri in early November of 1861. The proclamation consisted of four major points I will list below.
I. No arrests whatever on account of political opinions, or for the merely private expression of the same, shall hereafter be made within the limits of the State of Missouri, and all persons who may have been arrested and are now held to answer upon such charges only shall be forthwith released; but it is expressly declared that nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to bar or interfere with any of the usual and regular proceedings of the established courts under statutes and orders made and provided for such offenses.
II. All peaceably-disposed citizens who may have been driven from their homes because of their political opinions, are hereby advised and permitted to return.
III. All bodies of armed men acting without the authority or recognition of the major-generals before named, and not legitimately connected with the armies in the field, are hereby ordered at once to disband.
IV. Any violation of either of the foregoing articles shall subject the offender to the penalty of military law, according to the natureof the offense.

98. Major John C. Fremont- John Fremont was born in 1813 in Savannah, GA and is most known for his work in the Civil War, but he made a name for himself prior to this as well. Fremont was a strong supporter of the Republican party, and was active in the winning of California from Mexico. Fremont also led expeditions across the Rocky Mts. gaining the nickname "Pathfinder." At the beginning of the Civil War, President Lincoln named Fremont one of the first four major generals of the Union. Lincoln made Fremont commander of the Western Front. Fremont eventually lost his position in the Union Army because of defeats, and a proclamation he made that Lincoln was not in favor of. Fremont left the army in October 1861, and passed away in 1890.

99. Tom Thumb- Tom Thumb was a 4 year old, 25", 15 pound boy, and worked for P.T. Barnum. "He was the one who would bridge Barnum's gap from hoax-creator to showman." He was one of Barnum's greatest attractions, and also one of his closest friends for life. Barnum traveled around with expositions of rare animals and people who had rare peculiarities.

100. Felix K. Zollicoffer- "At Mill Springs, Tennessee, on January 18, 1862, General Zollicoffer told an officer not to fire on his own men, believing the soldier to be a Confederate. As Union Colonel Fry rode away and was fired upon, he realized the general was his enemy and fired back in concert with other Federals, killing Zollicoffer."

101. in Virginia- In April of 1861, the Confederate capital was moved from Montgomery, Alabama to Richmond, Virginia.

102. Island No 10- Island No. 10 was "a one mile long island positioned in a bend in the Mississippi River that straddled the boundaries of Tennessee, Missouri, and Kentucky. The battle at Island No 10 marked the first extensive siege of the Civil War." The battle ended with a Union victory.

103. Fort Donelson- Fort Donelson is located in Seward County, Tennessee, and was the site of a Union victory on February 16, 1862. General Ulysses S. Grant led the Union army at Fort Donelson. The victory gave the Union army a path to advance along the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers.

104. Edward George Ryan- Edward Ryan was born in Ireland, and was a lawyer, politician, and a judge. In 1842, he moved to Racine, WI. Ryan was an active lawyer in Milwaukee in the 1840's and 50's, and led the Democratic Party in Wisconsin in 1862-1863. Ryan worked again as an attorney in Milwaukee from 1870-1873 serving as Milwaukee city attorney, and working for better state railroad policies. In 1874, Ryan was even appointed chief justice of the state supreme court. "He was for many years one of the most colorful and important figures in state Democratic politics."
Dictionary of Wisconsin Biography. The State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Madison: 1960.

105. Wendell Phillips- Wendell Phillips was born in Boston on November 29, 1811. Phillips was educated at the Harvard Law School, and opened a law office in Boston in 1834. Phillips was first converted to the abolition of slavery after hearing William Lloyd Garrison speak at the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society in 1835. Phillips was impressed with the strength and courage of the people speaking out against slavery, and decided to give up law and devote himself to obtaining freedom for slaves. Phillips spoke, wrote pamphlets, and contributed to Garrison's Liberator as ways of trying to combat slavery. In 1865 Phillips replaced Garrison as president of the Anti-Slavery Society. Phillips passed away in Boston in 1884.

106. Pittsburgh Landing- Pittsburgh Landing is on the Tennessee River, and was the site of the famous Battle of Shiloh (April 6-7). Shiloh Methodist Church is where the battle derived its name. More men were lost in the two day Battle of Shiloh, than all previous wars the United States had fought in. The battle cost the Confederates over 10,000 men and the Union at least 13,000.

107. John Bankhead Magruder- Magruder was born in 1809, and attended West Point in 1830, graduating 15th in his class. With the secession of Virginia from the Union, Magruder resigned from his position in the Army, and subsequently was appointed a colonel in the Confederate Army. "In April 1862, Magruder directed the defense of the Warwick-Yorktown Line from Lee Hall and halted the powerful Union advance against Richmond." "Magruder was dubbed "Prince John" for wearing lavish, full-dress uniforms and hosting elaborate parties." Magruder died in 1871.

108. Senator Trumbull- Lyman Trumbull was a Senator from Illinois who fought for the rights of African Americans. Trumbull was responsible for writing the First and Second Confiscation Acts, the Civil Rights Act, and organized the Freedmen's Bureau. Trumbull also wrote and proposed the Thirteenth Amendment that abolished slavery. Senator Trumbull died in 1896.

109. Edward Everett- Edward Everett was born in Massachusetts and lived from 1794-1865. Everett served as the president of Harvard from 1846-1849, and as a member of the House from 1825-1835. Everett was also the governor of assachusetts from 1835-1839. Everett also served as secretary of state during the last four months of Millard Fillmore's term. In 1853, Everett was elected to the United States Senate. Edward Everett was in strong support of the war. In a twist of history, Everett gave a two hour oration at the dedication of the national cemetary in Gettysburg, but the oration that is remembered is Lincoln's short remarks after this.
Garraty, John. American National Biography. Volume 7. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

110. Camp Douglas- Camp Douglas was a Confederate-prisoner-of-war camp located in Chicago at Thirty-First Street and Cottage Grove Avenue. Between 1862 and 1865, around twenty-six hundred prisoners stayed in the wooden barracks, somewhere around four thousand died in the barracks.

111. Solomon Sturgis- Sturgis organized a company of armed men in Chicago for nearly two months all on his own generosity. The company began service on May 6, 1861. Sturgis bought the company Sharpe's rifles. In June, the company was sent to West Virginia to look out for General McClellan. The company stayed with McClellan throughout West Virginia, and then on to Washington. Eventually the company was mustered out of service in November 1862.

112. "contrabands"- It is assumed that Thomas is referring to two slaves.

113. Jules Gabriel Gaston Zoé de Launay- Professor Jules Gabriel Gaston Zoé de Launay, Ph.D. Graduated from the University of Angers and after went to Rome to enter the priesthood.  Prof. de Launay was sent on a Foreign mission to Fribbourg after studying under the Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. In Fribbourg he contracted typhoid fever and upon recovery returned to Rome to study. He studied the catacombs of the Vatican, but soon felt that the priesthood was not his calling. Prof. de Launay traveled to New York and became Professor of Ancient and Modern Languages at the State College of Louisiana. After his marriage he returned to preaching the Gospel and traveled around the world to colleges giving lectures on the Roman Catacombs and Biblical Archeology. After the death of his first wife he toured churches in Canada and married his second wife. Shortly after his marriage he was appointed a missionary in Paris, his native city. From The Christian Standard, No. 907, page 507 Friday June 17, 1887, London.

114. Thames Tunnel- The Thames Tunnel was built in England in 1843, for the purpose of a subway and as a path for pedestrians. The tunnel was built underneath the Thames River which was a major architectural breakthrough for the time period. There had been attempts to do this, but not until engineer Marc sambard Brunel came along in 1825 did anyone have the right answer. Brunel encountered many problems as he worked to build the tunnel, and the tunnel was not finished until 18 years later, proving for the first time that a tunnel could be built underwater.

115. Charles Farrar Browne- Charles Browne was an American humorist that went by the name "Artemas Ward." Browne was born in Maine in 1834. He began a series in 1858, called "Artemus Ward's Letters" where he gained much of his fame. "The letters were supposedly written by a carnival manager who commented on current events in a New England dialect that was augmented by bad grammar and misspelled words." In 1859, began writing for the staff of Vanity Fair. Charles Browne passed away in 1867.

116. "skinned"- 1854 in E.C. Porter Songs of Yale (1860) "But now that Biennial's past, I 'skinned' and 'fizzled' through."
A Dictionary of American English Vol. IV Sir William A. Craigie, ed. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago: 1944.

117. "pony"- "A literal translation of a Latin or Greek text used by students to avoid study; any translation or key so used." colloq.
A Dictionary of American English Vol. IV Sir William A. Craigie, ed. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago: 1944.