South America

The following list includes all of the locations in South America represented in the Logan Museum Collections.

Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Venezuela


Colombia

Ancient Colombia
The early cultures of Colombia were distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. Furthest south, straddling Colombia and Ecuador, the Tumaco-La Tolita culture arose around 300 BC and was at its peak until about 200 AD.

The Logan Museum has a small number of objects from the Tumaco-La Tolita Culture, all ceramic.


Ecuador

Ancient Ecuador
The early cultures of Ecuador were distributed along the Pacific coast. The Valdivia culture represents the earliest culture to produce ceramics in the New World, from 3200-2300 BC. The Chorrera culture (1200-500 BC) perfected hollow figures, the Jama-Coaque in the south (300 BC-500 AD) the mold for mass-producing figures and vessels. In the north, straddling Colombia and Ecuador, the Tumaco-La Tolita culture (300 BC - 200 AD) exploited this technology. (See Ancient Colombia)

The Logan Museum has a small number of artifacts from ancient Ecuador. 

Shipbo
The Shipibo are a modern culture which is located in the lower slopes of the Andes of Peru.

The Logan Museum has acquired a large number of objects from the expeditions undertaken in the 1950s. Shipibo objects are identifiable by their distinctive geometric patterning.

Shuar
The Shuar people are one of the four main subgroups of the Jivaro linguistic family, inhabiting the montaña of Ecuador. The population is dispersed over a wide area and feuds with neighboring peoples are common. Shuar men wear elaborate headdresses and earrings to make themselves more attractive to women. Feathers are seen as a sign of virility and spiritual power, and are generally worn by elders and political leaders as symbols of their authority.

The Logan Museum's collection contains a number of objects, mostly items of dress. These include crowns, earrings, and breastplates.


Peru

Chavin Horizon
1500-300 BC

Chavin
The Chavín were perhaps the earliest organized culture in Peru, the result of the development which began along the north coast about 1500 BC and gradually spread into the highlands after 1200 BC. The principal site is Chavín de Huantar, a religious center established around 1000 BC. Cupisnique developed as a subgroup of Chavín culture in the coastal areas.

The Logan Museum has a small collection of Chavín and Cupisnique ceramics.

Cupisnique
The Chavín were perhaps the earliest organized culture in Peru, the result of the development which began along the north coast about 1500 BC and gradually spread into the highlands after 1200 BC. The principal site is Chavín de Huantar, a religious center established around 1000 BC. Cupisnique developed as a subgroup of Chavín culture in the coastal areas. 

The Logan Museum has a small collection of Chavín and Cupisnique ceramics.

Vicus
The Vicús culture was situated in the far north of Peru, near the border of Ecuador. The site was looted and objects began to appear on the market in this unfamiliar style before archaeologists were able to determine their exact origin. Once identified, they found the site ruined and were unable to do any sort of systematic analysis. It is clear, however, that the Vicús culture was roughly contemporary with the Chavín culture to the south.

The Logan Museum possesses a variety of  ceramics from the Vicús period, including several of the double-bodied pots typical of this culture.

Paracas
The Paracas style is found in the Ica, Nazca and Acarí valleys of coastal southern Peru. The artifacts consist largely of ceramics from burials and date to the period from about 600 to 300 BC. Stylistically, Paracas ceramics are similar to those of the northern Chavín styles, but there are distinctive vessel forms and decoration.

The Logan Museum has a small number of bowls and pots all sharing a common dark glaze and geometric decoration.

Early Intermediate
300 BC - 550 AD

Moche
The Moche state dominated the entire northern coastal region of Peru from about 200 to 750 AD. The ceramics, while limited in vessel forms, display a remarkably high technical expertise, both in modeling and painting.

The Logan Museum possesses some very high quality Moche pieces.

Requay
The Recuay peoples occupied the northern highlands of Peru, particularly the highland basin of the Santa, from about 200 to 600 AD. Artifacts are largely limited to ceramics derived from burials. Recuay ceramics are typically decorated using a negative-painting technique in which a resist material is painted on to the vessel, after which the vessel is darkened. The resist material is removed revealing the original color against the dark ground.

The Logan Museum has a number of objects from the Recuay including figures and effigy pots.

Nazca
The Nazca culture emerged from the earlier Paracas in southern coastal Peru around 300 BC and remained until about 700 AD. Early Nazca ceramics were quite similar to the Paracas although more realistic. Soon, however, the style became very abstract and then, late in the development, became much closer to that of Tihuanaco.

The majority of the Logan Museum objects date to the early centuries of Nazca development.

Tiahuanaco
The Tiahuanaco culture thrived at the southern edge of Lake Titicaca on the border of Peru and Bolivia. The culture arose around 300 BC and lasted until 1100 AD. It was centered around the great stone built city of the same name. Tiahuanaco was a key economic center dominating commodity exchange over a wide area. Remnants of extensive irrigation systems indicate a large population.

The Logan Museum has a number of ceramic objects from the Tiahuanaco culture, mostly dating from 300 BC to 600 AD.

Late Intermediate
1000 - 1475 AD

Chimu
The Chimú style followed the Moche, arising around 800 AD and continuing until the Inca conquest around 1400. Chimú pottery is distinctive due to its dark black glazing. Textiles tend to have several large motifs arranged on a field of smaller ones. Goldwork is also common, often in the form of repoussé sheets which were used as pendants, to decorate textiles or as coverings for ceramic pots and cups.

The Logan Museum has a variety of objects, almost entirely ceramics and textiles.

Chancay
The Chancay apparently developed in relative isolation from Tihuanaco around 1200 along the central coast of Peru. The distinctive Chancay style consists of white-slipped ceramics with black-lined decoration, and an unusual primitiveness pervades Chancay ceramics. Human figures were common and were frequently dressed in plain weave garments. Textiles take a variety of forms, from simple fabrics with elaborate borders to all-over woven patterns to painted decoration.

The Logan Museum has a small collection of figural pieces and numerous textiles fron the Chancay.

Ica
The Ica rose to prominence around 1100-1400 in the southern coastal region of Peru. Ica ceramics seem to be heavily influenced by inland Tiahuanaco, while the textiles are more closely affiliated with central coastal work.

The Logan Museum has a small collection of Ica objects.

Inca
The Inca rose to prominence around 1400 and by 1500 had established one of the largest empires ever created, including Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and portions of Argentina and Chile. The pottery styles owe much to southern Peruvian antecedents.

The Logan Museum has a large collection of Inca objects.

Modern Cultures
1475 - Today

Quechua
The Quechua are a modern people centered in Ecuador.

The Logan Museum has acquired various objects from the Quechua over the course of several visits to the region in the 1950s.


Venezuela

Ancient Venezuela
The ancient cultures of Venezuela paralleled those of Colombia and Ecuador, often sharing influences. The Betijoque stayle, named for a town on Lake Maracaibo, is distinguished by diagonal hatched patterns.

The Logan Museum has very few artifacts from ancient Venezuela.