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Beloit College in the Second World War

By Philip B. Whitehead

 

This paper

Beloit College in the Second World War

was written by Professor Emeritus Philip Barrows Whitehead

at the request of President Carey Croneis

prompted by Mrs. Richardson, who knew that
only he know enough about them to digest
thoroughly the materials of his committee
lodged in the Archives.

Completed and delivered to the Archives, January 6, 1956.

HLDR.

 

     The contribution of Beloit College to the preparedness measures that preceeded our entry into the second World War begins in 1939. On September 26 of that year the faculty was informed that the executive committee of the Board of Trustees had voted to participate in the Civil Aeronautics program for the training of college students as pilots. (FM Sept. 26, 1939, RT Oct. 4, 1939, Oct. 21, 1939, Alumnus, Jan. 1939, p.12). The prescribed theoretical work, that is the "ground school", was carried on as an extra curricular activity without college credit with Mr. Bigelow of the mathematics department as instructor. Flight training was conducted by the technical staff of the Machesney Air Port at Rockford. Work in the ground school began October 11 and flight training in December. Twenty one students applied for the training but of these only ten were able to meet the physical requirements. A year later the faculty voted to give three hours credit for the ground work done in the college under a member of the faculty. "The purpose of the action" as recorded in the faculty minutes was "to make clear the attitude of the college to the defense program of the nation." (FM Oct. 22, 1940) On April 29, 1941, the faculty voted to continue the course for another year.

     The faculty of the college at this time was overwhelmingly in favor of strengthening the nation's defenses and of giving all possible aid to Britain. The attitude of the students on the other hand contrasted sharply with that of the faculty. The confusion and uncertainty in the minds of the students was reflected in the Round Table editorials on the pilot training project. On October 4, 1939, it was praised as "voluntary preparedness" in an editorial that ended: "If preparedness be the word today, let us be prepared." A few months later, the Round Table was a new editor denounced the project as "magnificent deception," and an attempt to "introduce militaristic projects under the sham of education" (RT, Feb. 24, 1940). The claim that this was a defence measure in disguise, while probably true, was challenged by Mr. Bigelow in a letter to the Round Table of March 6, 1940.

     In the pre-war period most of the students were, like the Middle West in general, isolationists. Strongly isolationist editorials appeared in the Round Table (Oct. 1, 1938, April 1, 1939, April 26, 1939, Feb. 24, 1940) A student poll taken in May, 1940, showed that while all but a few hoped for an allied victory, a great majority were opposed to intervention and to economic aid. A large majority stated that they would refuse to bear arms if the United States entered the war (RT, May 18, 1940). Criticism of this vote in the local news paper was answered by a Round Table editorial stating with more truth than literary elegance, "We are of a generation that has been weaned on the high sounding words of our leaders that never again should American youth be sent over seas to dampen foreign soil with their blood". However, in a poll taken a week later the students voted almost unanimously that they would take up arms if the western hemisphere were invaded (RT, May 25, 1940).

     The attitude of the students in this period is summed up by John L. Biester who spoke for the graduating class at the Commencement of 1941. "We detest Hitler, his government, and his destruction of human liberty; we denounce his use of military force to expand German influence and control. We will fight with all our strength and with all our might to keep such a civilization out of our country, and if this means wear, young people like ourselves will be among the first to volunteer for service. Until military force threatens America directly, however, we shall direct our effects toward maintaining the way of peace". (Alumnus, June 1941, p.7)

     During the period in which the students reflected the prevailing isolationism of the middle west, they heard forceful arguments for and against participation in the war. On April 21, 1940, Dr. Albert Peel, and eminent British clergyman, spoke at the Sunday afternoon vesper service on wartime conditions in England. In October 1940, Oswald Garrison Villard speaking in the college chapel stated that the United States should keep out of the war (RT, Oct. 19, 1940). In February of 1941, the very popular professor of American history, L. Taylor Merrill, delivered a Washington's birthday address in which Washington was presented as "the forgotten man". Quoting the well known words about entangling alliances, Mr. Merrill denounced the "reckless interventionists" who ignored Washington's advice (RT Feb. 22, 1941). A student poll taken after this address appeared to show an overwhelmingly isolationist sentiment. However, as a Round Table editorial pointed out, the questions were slanted in such a way as to make the results inconclusive.

     On March 7, a European newspaper correspondent who had just returned from abroad, Mr. Alfred Brace, an alumnus of the class of 1909, said in a chapel talk: "Before the signatures are dry on the sheep-skins, the drums of war, of America's war, will be sounding you to the colors. As America moves forward to battle, I can only envy you, congratulate you, and wish you God speed". This ran so directly counter to student sentiment that it aroused vigorous protest. The Round Table on the next day (March 8) said editorially: "We rebel when the speaker glorifies the picture of war."

     The Round Table of March 12 reports an address by Sir Norman Angell in which he said: "Collective freedom cannot survive unless there is collective resistance to violence." Early in April, Col Robert R. McCormick spoke in chapel on discipline in the military service. Opponents of the Chicago Tribune brand of isolationism were agreeably disappointed when he made no reference to the current situation. Beginning on April 8, Professor Robert B. Mouat of the University of Bristol, England, gave a series of lectures on European diplomatic history, 1917-1941, in which he presented a scholarly analysis of the background of the war. Professor Mouat's charming personality endeared him to members of the Beloit faculty to whom his tragic death in an airplane accident on his return to England brought a sense of personal loss. On a very different key was an address on April 28 by Senator Burton K. Wheeler, a prominent isolationist who had been invited to address the college (without the approval of the faculty and administration) by the Associated Students. His two hour speech against preparedness and intervention appears to have made a rather poor impression upon a large number of the students. (RT, April 23, April 30, May 3, 1941).

     While the students were hearing the issues of the war discussed by these speakers from outside the college, members of the faculty attempted to bring home to them the fact that the United States could not be a disinterested spectator. On June 2, 1940, Professor Ivan M. Stone of the department of government, who had been elected by the senior class to deliver the senior vesper address, pointed out the danger to the United States if the Nazis were victorious and is quoted in the Round Table as saying: "The Lindbergian isolationist dream that, whatever happens in Europe, the United States will remain calm and detatched [sic] and unaffected is dead as a dodo". (RT, May 14, 1941) A few days later Professor Peter Smith of the Romance languages department told the students that the United States "entered a state of undeclared war with Germany some time ago." (RT, May 17, 1941). In the Round Table of May 28, 1941, Professor Robert K. Richardson of the department of history gave six reasons why the United States should enter the war. These, as he briefly summarized them, included moral, historical, legal, commercial, industrial, and Christian standards.

     Although the student body as a whole remained apathetic, a considerable number of Beloit students and former students were in military service and in war activities. The same issue of the Round Table that reports the Washington's birthday address of Professor Merrill (Feb. 22, 1941) carries an article headed: "History repeats itself as Beloit men join the army". Among the names listed in this article is a graduate of the class of 1939, an aviation cadet at the time, who later was to pilot cargo planes from India to China across "the hump". Two Beloit alumni deserve special mention. Dr. Walter Van Dyke Bingham of the class of 1901 was chairman of the committee on classification of military personnel in the Adjutant General's office at Washington. Edward R. Burke, '06, in the United States Senate sponsored the Burke-Wadsworth Selective Services Act of 1940. (AB, Oct. 1940, p.17, April 1941, p.13, RT, Feb. 22, Nov. 26, 1941)

     The first registration for Selective Service in October, 1940, involved a considerable number of Beloit students, although the law at that time gave a blanket deferment to all college students. The Round Table of October 16, 1940, gives a list of students required to register and directors for registration.

     Meanwhile the faculty and administration of the college were taking important steps toward preparedness. The Faculty minutes of February 18, 1941, record the appointment by President Maurer of a faculty committee on defense consisting of Professors McGranahan, Richardson, and Whitehead, with the last named as chairman. The committee met soon after to discuss its task. Its first action was to direct the chairman to write to various military and educational authorities and ask for suggestions as to how the college could contribute to the defense effort. (FM. Feb 25, Schedule B.)

     At the next faculty meeting on March 25, President Maurer announced that the was [sic] re-naming the Committee as the Committee on Selective Serve and Defense and was adding to it Professor Stone, who up to that time had been handling the questions of the students regarding selective service. The committee was later enlarged by the addition of Messers Gilpatric and Bigelow and Miss Weirick, Registrar of the college.

     At the next meeting of the committee it was decided that the chairman should take over the work of advising the students in regard to selective service. As the law at this time contained a provision for the temporary deferment of all college students, few questions arose except about the procedure for registration. After the re-enactment of the law in 1941, there was no blanket deferment of students. The law provided, however, that individual students might be deferred by their local boards when such deferment was considered to be in the national interest. This applied mainly to students who were majoring in science and pre-medical courses. It now became necessary to be familiar with the successive bulletins in which the classes of students eligible for deferment were broadened and more sharply defined. As the principles and regulations governing student deferment were not well understood, even by the draft boards, and were frequently changed, many questions arose that were important to individual students. (e.g. RT, Oct. 19, 1941, p.2). It became necessary in some cases to secure classification from higher authorities. In one case where a draft board proposed to induct a student who was eligible for deferment, the board said that it did not propose to let a man waste four years in college when his country needed him. This case was settled by an appeal to the State Director of Selective Service. Usually, however, the boards showed a spirit of cooperation with the college and an appreciation of the value of college training in the many technical services of modern warfare.

     The women of the college were organized for Red Cross work, first aid, bandage rolling, and knitting. Doubtless the morale of the draftees being trained at Camp Grant near Rockford was improved by the action of the women students in entertaining 183 officers and men at an informal dance in the gymnasium in October 1941. The Round Table reported that the party was a great success. Later the students were organized to promote the sale of defense stamps and war bonds. Books were collected and sent to the soldiers. News about and letters from men in the service all over the world were gathered and published in the Round Table. Toward the close of the war, clothing was collected for the refugees. In 1942 students were enrolled for civilian defense and a course for air raid wardens was announced. As the number of men in college grew smaller, these activities were more and more taken over by the women along with all the customary student organizations and activities. The student annual, the "Gold", was profusely illustrated with pictures of the college in war time.

     During the fall of 1941 the faculty committee on selective service and defense worked out a defense training program. It proposed to add to the curriculum some new courses and to emphasize courses already being given that would help to meet the acute shortage in specialized fields that are of great importance in modern warfare. Heads of departments were asked to suggest appropriate courses in their fields. On November 18, 1941, an outline of a Defense Training Program was distributed to the faculty for consideration at the next faculty meeting (Appendix I).

     At the faculty meeting on November 24, 1941, this program was approved after some discussion and after the rejection of certain proposed amendments (FM Nov. 24, 1941 and Schedules D, G, H). At the same meeting approval was given to a course in military German outlined by Professor Sweet, head of the German department. This course was to be based on official German publications of which copies had been obtained. These not only made the student familiar with military vocabulary but also gave them information on some of the important events of the war. It was then moved by Dean Conwell that the program be publicised [sic] and the motion was carried. During the next few days this measure received a good deal of favorable publicity in the newspapers. The plan as drawn up by the committee was printed in full in the Round Table and was heartily endorsed in this editorial column (RT, Nov 26, 1941). At subsequent meetings of the faculty additional courses were presented and approved (Alumnus, Jan. 1942, p.17. Appendix III). These and other changes that were made in the curriculum and graduation requirements were neither radical nor out of line with the liberal arts curriculum. Their purpose was to use the existing facilities of the college in support of the defense measures of the nation. When, two weeks after the adoption of the defense program, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the college had already taken effective steps to support the war effort.

     In this respect Beloit was probably unique in the isolationist Mid-west. The contrast between the attitude of the administration and faculty of Beloit with that of another Wisconsin college is illustrated by a letter that reached the chairman of the committee just before Pearl Harbor. The writer was moved by a somewhat exaggerated newspaper account of the project to inquire angrily what this fol-de-rol was about a defense program. A few days later, after the Japanese attack, the chairman received a very apologetic letter from the same college president.

     The attack of the Japanese at Pearl Harbor brought a complete change in the attitude of the students toward military service. Hitherto they had listened with scepticism [sic] and indifference, sometimes with hostility to efforts of faculty and visiting speakers to arouse them to the danger threatening the United States. In regard to selective service, their main interest was how to keep out of the draft. Although by this time a number of students and recent graduates were in the armed forces, the majority hung back. After the declaration of war, however, the task of the faculty and administration was to persuade the students to follow the wishes of the national administration and remain in college till actually called. A letter of Mr. Whitehead to President Maurer dated December 13, 1941 states: "There has been a regular procession of students in to see me lately about the draft, about volunteering in the regular army, about getting into civilian defense, etc". Another difficulty task in the excitement of war was to convince the students of the importance of education in the war effort. Among younger students especially, the attitude was apt to be, What's the use? That the need of serious application to study was realized by the older students is shown by an editorial in the Round Table of December 10: "Now is the time to study and study hard ... We realize how hard it is going to be fore the students to carry on a normal everyday life ... but we cannot help but feel that in doing just that, until we are called, we will be doing the most for the United States". The same point of view was effectively presented in a long and well written letter to the Round Table on December 13 by Richard Pettibone: "What is your part in the war? 1. Study harder than ever before getting ready to do your part as the brains of the combat. 2 Get physically fit by daily exercise."

     One incident at the time of Pearl Harbor brought the college some unfavorable publicity. When it was known that President Roosevelt's address to Congress on December 8 was to be broadcast, the defense committee hurriedly called together and voted to arranged for the speech to be heard by the students in the college chapel immediately after the regular assembly. A loud speaker had already been installed when the head of the Department of Religion, who had charge of the chapel, refused to allow the broadcast to take place on the ground that the chapel should not be used to arouse warlike emotions. As President Maurer was out of town at the time the plan had to be abandoned. The action produced an indignant protest from faculty and students. (FM Dec. 19, 1941)

     The defense program that had been initiated before the outbreak of war was now further developed. On December 19, 1941, the Course of Study Committee recommended and the faculty approved a course in modern military history and geography. On January 9, 1942, a course on aerial navigation requested by the Army Air Corps was approved. On January 26 1942, an advanced course in electronics was authorized. The value of this course is illustrated by the fact that after the next Commencement, one of the graduating class, a physics major, was immediately commissioned and sent to England for training in radar. The faculty also voted that the freshman course in mathematics of the first semester be repeated in the second semester to meet the needs of students who were to enter the military service. At the same time an enlarged program of physical education for all men was inaugurated. In order that the resources of the physical education department might be entirely devoted to this course in body building that had been requested by the War Department, intercollegiate athletics were suspended for the duration of the war. This action was heartily endorsed by the Round Table. It was violently criticised [sic] by other colleges, but they were soon forced by wartime conditions to take the same action. (FM Jan. 9, Jan. 26, Dec. 14, 1942, RT Sept. 26, Nov. 25, Dec. 2, 1942, Jan. 9, 1943). On December 14, 1942, the faculty approved a course to be given by Professor Ivan M. Stone on "The United States at War" and a course on "War and Social Reconstruction" to be given cooperatively by the departments of economics, philosophy and sociology.

     A number of measures important to the students were adopted at various times. The trustees of the college authorized a proportional refund of tuition to students inducted during the summer (RT, May 3, 1941) The faculty voted that credit toward a degree be given for part of a semester's work. Three seniors called into service near the end of the year were granted their degrees on the basis of work already done. But the most important action taken by the college to assist students in completing their college course, or as much of it as possible, was the introduction of a summer semester in 1942. (FM Jan. 13, 1942) A special summer commencement was held at the end of the summer term at which students who had completed the requirements for graduation under the accelerated program were given their degrees (RT, Sept. 24, 1943)

     Early in 1942 a most important change in the relation of college students to the selective service system came with the announcement of the Navy's V-7 program, followed later by V-1, V-5 and eventually by other V programs for both the Navy and Marine Corps. (FM Feb. 23, 1942, RT, Feb. 25, March 14, April 22, May 13, Sept. 23, 1942. Alumnus, Oct. 1942, p. 19) The purpose was to provide a reserve of college-educated men for officer training and for special services. Any student who could meet the physical and mental requirements for officers of the Navy and Marine Corps could be formally enlisted and was not thereafter subject to the draft. While liable to be called into service at any time, he would if possible, be allowed to finish his college course and then be given officer training. Not all students who applied were able to meet the physical requirements. Imperfect eyesight was one of the most frequent causes of rejection. Cases of color blindness of which the student himself had not been aware were discovered. The V-1 plan was fully explained in a memorandum presented to the faculty on April 27, 1942 by the Committee on Military Service (Appendix II, FM April 27, 1942, Schedule E).

     The Army at first refused to adopt a deferred enlistment plan but did so when it became apparent that the Navy and Marine Corps were getting the cream of the officer material in the colleges. (e.g. RT, March 21, 1942) The Navy's plan had been carefully thought out and was well administered. The Army's Enlisted Reserve Corps however appears to have been improvised and was eventually cancelled to the great disappointment of the men enrolled, most of whom were drafted as privates instead of being sent to officer candidate schools. Only those majoring in medical, engineering, and scientific courses were left in college. (RT Feb. 17, 1943).

     In June of 1942 a memorandum outlining the opportunities for deferred enlistment was sent to the parents of Beloit students with a covering letter from acting President Tyrrell. (FM June 15, 1942, p.4).

     On April 27, 1942, the name of the committee on selective service and defense was changed to the committee on military service. The chairman of the committee, Mr. Whitehead, had, on September 25, 1942, been appointed by the joint Army and Navy board in charge of deferred enlistments as Armed Services Representative in the college. His chief duty from that time on was to keep the students informed of the regulations for the various deferred enlisted reserves, to advise and assist students in the enlistment procedures and to make frequent reports on the academic status of the men enrolled. Under the regulations, a student who fell below the required standard of scholarship was to be called immediately into active service in an enlisted status. Since no students were accepted for enlistment who were not doing satisfactory work, they were able to meet and most of them to exceed the requirements.

     On October 26, 1942, there were about seventy five students enrolled under the deferred enlistment plans (FM, Oct. 26, 1942) Early in 1943, the acting President, Mr. Tyrrell, and the trustees completed arrangements with the Army Air Corps for the training of recruits on campus. (FM Feb. 22, March 22, 1943. Alumnus, June 1943, p.23, August 1943, p.15) A copy of "An Official History of the 95th Training Detachment (Aircrew)" prepared by Second Lieutenant W. G. Anktell is on file in the college archives. The cadets were housed in the men's dormitories, which were now available because of the small number of men remaining in college. Academic classes were arranged for the cadets in accordance with a directive issued by the Air Corps. They were held in the college class rooms and were taught by members of the faculty. Courses were given in mathematics, physics, geography, English, and recent world history. Mr. Tyrrell, in his report on the state of the college at Commencement, May 24, 1943, states that about seventy-five members of the faculty were devoting extra hours to the teaching of the men and that about half the facilities of the college were being used by them. When the program was terminated in May, 1944, a total of 1100 men had received this training. In addition to the academic classes, the men were given physical exercises and military drill by the officers assigned to the unit and flight training at the Rockford Air Port. Photographs of drills and formations on the campus are to be found in the Round Table, the Gold, and the Alumnus (e.g. RT, Oct. 23, 1943)

     The first contingent of about 300 men to arrive on the campus were men of high caliber. Many of them had attended college and some were college graduates. They responded well to the efforts of their instructors to crowd as much education as possible into the few weeks they were here. But as time went on, the quality of the recruits fell off. Teaching them became more and more a discouraging business. The general impression, however, was that the men profited by the time spent here and carried away a favorable impression of the college. At the completion of the program a certificate of award was presented to the college by the Army Air Corps. A photograph of the presentation of the certificate by Captain Charles R. Manning, commander of the unit, to Mr. Tyrrell is preserved at the end of the 1944 volume of the Faculty Minutes. The main facts about the Air Crew are given in a review of the college year at Commencement, published in the Alumnus, June, 1944.

     During the summer of 1942 a group of gilder pilots lived in the men's dormitories while in training. (RT, Sept. 23, 1942) In May of 1943 arrangements were made with the Navy for housing a contingent of seemen and petty officers while they attended a Diesel school at Fairbanks Morse. Porter cottage, the TKE house and the Sigma Pi house were so used. (RT, Jan. 9, 1943) Beginning in 1942, evening classes were held in Science Hall for the benefit of defense workers in the industries of the city. "Refresher courses" in mathematics and science were given by faculty members and others and were well attended, especially by employees of Beloit industries who wished to qualify for better positions. The Round Table of October 26, 1942 notes that a course in Diesel engineering had been added and that about 400 men and women were enrolled in the various evening classes.

     The college suffered a very drastic falling off of enrollment during the war. Beginning with a 5% decrease in enrollment in the fall of 1941 (RT, October 1, 1941) the number of students declined to 369 in February of 1945, of whom the great majority were women (College Catalogue). At this time there were 48 men, of whom more than half were freshmen, and 321 women. With the end of the war enrollment began to increase. The catalogue of February 1946 lists 635 students, but a year later the enrollment was 1002, a very great increase from the pre-war enrollment of about 600. These fluctuations in enrollment present difficult problems in housing, instructional staff, and classrooms, all of which were solved more or less satisfactorily. The financial problems of the loss of income from tuition was fairly well solved by the payments which the college received from the government for the use of its facilities by the Army, Navy, and Air Force.

     The faculty furnished its quota to to [sic] the war services. The Round Table of April 10 1943 lists eleven faculty members who at that time were in government service.

     The small enrollment of men during the war years made necessary many changes in student life and activities. The Round Table, the Gold, the Associated Students, the various bond and saving stamp drives, and other activities were largely carried on by the women and very well carried on too. In the election of officers of the Associated Students in May of 1943, all the candidates were women. The men's fraternities became inactive and their houses were used as dormitories. The Beta House was used as a women's dormitory (Alumnus, August 1943, pages 8, 9) At the beginning of the war, classes were organized for Red Cross work, first aid, etc. In October 1942 classes for aid raid wardens were organized. Beginning in September, 1943, the Round Table was published once a week. A regular feature of the paper till the end of the war was "News about servicemen". Copies of the Round Table were sent to all students in the services. In 1942 a student committee on War Preparation was formed. (FM October 26, 1942, Constitution, Schedule A).

     By 1943, college and military leaders began to plan for the return of students to college at the end of the war. One important phase of this matter was the granting of credits for training received in the armed forces (RT, March 24, 1943, p.2). In the fall of 1944, acting President Tyrrell appointed a committee on admission and counceling [sic] of veterans consisting of Professor Boutwell, chairman, and Professors Ballard and Von Eschen with the Registrar, Miss Weirick. The committee presented a report which was adopted by the faculty on September 16, 1944. At this time the War Service Committee was discontinued and a new committee appointed in its place on War Service Credits consisting of Whitehead, chairman, with Von Eschen, Welty, and the Registrar. The function of this committee was to appraise the work done in the various service schools and to recommend to the faculty the amount of credit to be allowed. Many of the men were found to have had work of academic quality, especially in the sciences and languages, that could be accepted as the equivalent of work done at Beloit. The usual procedure of the War Service Credit Committee was as follows. After assuring itself that the records presented by the student were satisfactory, he was sent to the head of the department concerned for questioning or examination. The recommendation of the department head was usually accepted and presented to the faculty. The work of evaluating war service credits was greatly facilitated by studies and recommendations published by the National Office of Education.

     After the defeat of Germany and Japan, veterans began to return in large numbers under the provisions of the G.I. Bill. The enrollment of the college increased so rapidly that temporary barracks, furnished by the government, had to be erected for the housing of veterans. Some of them had married before entering the service and some had brought back wives from overseas. For their accommodation, a special group of barracks was divided into small apartments. Much concern was felt at first as to how the veterans would adapt themselves to college work As a matter of fact, the returning veterans, especially the ones who were married, proved to be serious students who set a new standard of scholarship for the college (FM March 24, 1947)

     An account of the part played by the college in the Second World War would be incomplete if it left unmentioned the thousand or more students, alumni, and faculty members who served in the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps in all the major campaigns of the war. At the Commencement of June 11, 1945, the twenty eight men who had given their lives were solemnly commemorated.

 

SOURCES

Abbreviations.

     FM Faculty Minutes.
     RT Round Table

     The most important source for the recent history of Beloit College consists of the bound volumes of the Faculty Minutes kept with meticulous accuracy by Professor Robert K. Richardson during the twenty five years in which he was secretary of the faculty. Bound with the minutes are the reports and recommendations of committee whenever submitted in writing together with other papers and letters relating to faculty business. Next in importance is the Beloit College Round Table as a record of events in the life of the college and of student opinion. During the war years the Round Table cooperated effectively with the administration and defense committee in keeping the students informed on the frequent changes in the plans and regulations of the military authorities. It published the names and addresses of students in the services and frequent letters from them. In the Gold will be found accounts of life on the campus during the war with many photographic records. The Alumni Bulletin contains additional information. In the Archives of the college will be found the papers from the files of the Defense Committee and of the Armed Services Representative. The writer has also drawn on his own recollections of the busy years during which he was Chairman of the Defense Committee and its successors, Armed Services Representative, instructor of a group of Air Corps trainees, in addition to as much as he could manage to do of his regular work.

 

APPENDICES

Appendix I.
     Proposed Defense Training Program approved by the faculty November 24, 1941.

Appendix II.
     Naval V-1 Program of Officer Training.

Appendix III.
     War Courses approved by the faculty.

Appendix IV.
     Committees referred to.